Ireland is a politically independent country. Northern Ireland is also called Ulster, which is a part of the UK. The name Northern Ireland appeared for the first time in 1920. The Capital of the Republic of Ireland is Dublin. Northern Ireland is quite distinct from Britain in political, ethnical and cultural matters. The Irish nation is one of the oldest nations in Europe. Since 1991, it has developed as one nation.
History of Ireland - Historia Irlandii
Around 700, the first Celts invaded on the Island from the continent and until the 18th A..D. Ireland was left alone in isolation. The history of the country developed in its own way separate from the history of Europe. The whole Kingdom was divided into many tribes. The local tribes fought each other. Religion - they believed in two worlds: earth and heaven. Society - warriors- they fought wars - druids- men of science. They did not use writing. - poets- they were considered to be people of literature This division survived many centuries. The first people who met the Irish were the Romans. They did not conquer Ireland. Ireland was too cold for them so, they named Ireland Hibernia. In the 5th century, Christianity appeared in Ireland. The process of Christianisation is associated with St. Patrick. He came from a Christian family and was captured by Irish pirates. Then he became a slave and worked as a shepherd. After 17 years, he escaped to Rome. In Rome, he received education and after having a vision, he came back to Ireland where he started to Christianise the country. The whole process was peaceful. St. Patrick adopted several pagan elements.
- The Celtic Cross- a circle incorporated in the cross
- Shamrock- It symbolises the Holly Trinity.
The aspect of three embodiments in one person.
The Irish society was a rural society. The structure of the church was based on monasteries.
Middle Ages - the migration of people. Ireland was not affected. - The country became a cultural centre of Europe. While there were wars in Europe, the situation in Ireland was peaceful. - In the 8th century, the invasion of the Vikings changed the situation in Ireland. The Vikings’ presence lasted from the 8th to the 11th century. - They established some cities in Ireland. - Conflict between the Vikings and Ireland 1014- The Battle of Clontarf. This used to be a separate settlement. The Irish united themselves and the Vikings were repelled from Ireland. It was the moment when the whole Island was united. The most important person was Brian Boru, an Irish king who united the tribes against the Vikings. Besides, he was an excellent harp player. - 1169- The Norman invasion on Ireland. Lord Pembroke was a Norman baron. He was invited by the King of Ireland to help him against his enemies. Lord Pembroke stayed in Ireland and found the British Colony- Dublin. The eastern part was inhibited by the Normans. When they came to Ireland, they surrounded their settlements with palisades. The western part remained Celtic. The Norman aspects started to become prevailing. - 15th century- the time of reformation. While the protestant religion started to dominate the British society, Ireland remained catholic. There was a dual division. - 17th century- lots of protestants came to Ireland. They came from Scotland, they wanted to establish their lands and settlements. - 17th century- Ulster plantation- Protestants were brought by ships to Northern Ireland and established their supremacy. At the end of the 17th century, Ireland was in the state of war. William II of Orange was the leader of the Protestants who fought against the Catholics . James II was the leader of the Catholics. - 1689- The Catholic army laid siege to the town of Derry. The Protestants defeated the Catholics. - 1690- The Battle of the River Boyne was also won by the Protestants. After their defeat, the Catholics were discriminated. Special laws limited their religion. 1801- Ireland was united with Great Britain. The two lands were incorporated. The name United Kingdom appeared for the first time. - The whole 19th century Ireland was politically and economically neglected by Great Britain. The worst period was 1845-1849. It was the time of the Great Famine. It had huge consequences for Ireland. - the population decreased from 8mln to 4mln - massive immigrants to the USA. During The First World War- The Irish saw changes and considered the war as the time to fight for independence. - 1916- The Easter Rising- Some Irish proclaimed independence, occupied offices. They were brutally crashed by the British. They failed because no one followed them in the Uprising. Michael Collins, who was one of the military leaders in the Rising, found the organisation called IRA (The Irish Republic of Army) - until 1922- Ireland was in the state of the Civil War. The society was against the British. -1922- Ireland signed a treaty. The results - a compromise was reached. Ireland was divided and achieved a broad autonomy, some degree of freedom. - 1937- The Government of the Irish Free State decided on independence and wrote the constitution of Ireland, which came into force exactly on 29 December 1937. The Irish established an independent country. called the Republic of Ireland. - The Second World War- Ireland stayed neutral. Between 1922-1968 the political situation was stable. -1968- Catholics decided to fight for their civil rights. They formed The Catholic Civil Rights Movement. They sent writings to the Parliament. In result, the British sent their army to Northern Ireland to keep peace. Manifestations turned into conflicts. 13th January 1972- Bloody Sunday- It was a breaking point. The nation was waken up. During a peaceful demonstration in the city of Derry, 13 Catholics were killed by the British paratroops -1972- 1998- the conflict was going on. There were three sides involved in the conflict. - IRA - Ulster Freedom Fighters - UK Government - Famous attacks of IRA -1974- a bomb exploded in a pub in the west part of London. Four Irish were arrested and sentenced for life imprisonment. After 15 years they were released. They were called the Guildford Four - 1979- IRA attacked the Royal Family. The Queen’s uncle died. - 1984- five minutes after the conference in Brighton was finished ( the meeting of the conservative party), the building exploded. All members of the cabinet left before the explosion occurred. - Law of detention- If someone was suspected of being a terrorist, he could be arrested for seven days. -1998- Good Friday Agreement- It was an agreement between the Catholics and the Protestants.
- to invade- najechać, opanować (np terytorium)
- tribes- plemiona
- to capture- schwytać, pojmać
- to incorporate- włączyć, zawierać
- shamrock- kończynka
- Holly Trinity- Święta Trójca
- settlement- osada
- to conquer- zdobyć, podbić
- prevailing- przeważający
- to laid siege to a town- przystąpić do oblężenia miasta
- palisade- palisada - to come into force- wchodzić w życie ( o umowie, traktacie itd…)
author Adam Cendrowski